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Yves Saint Laurent Opium Homme 100ml EDT Men Spray

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Liang, Bin; Lu, Hong (2013). "Discourses of drug problems and drug control in China: Reports in the People's Daily, 1946–2009". China Information. 27 (3): 302. doi: 10.1177/0920203X13491387. S2CID 147627658. Opium (12 mg) + Atropine sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg) Other methods of preparation (besides smoking), include processing into regular opium tincture ( tinctura opii), laudanum, paregoric ( tinctura opii camphorata), herbal wine (e.g., vinum opii), opium powder ( pulvis opii), opium sirup ( sirupus opii) and opium extract ( extractum opii). [122] Vinum opii is made by combining sugar, white wine, cinnamon, and cloves. Opium syrup is made by combining 97.5 part sugar syrup with 2.5 parts opium extract. Opium extract ( extractum opii) finally can be made by macerating raw opium with water. To make opium extract, 20 parts water are combined with 1 part raw opium which has been boiled for 5 minutes (the latter to ease mixing). [122] Fueled in part by the 1729 ban on madak, which at first effectively exempted pure opium as a potentially medicinal product, the smoking of pure opium became more popular in the 18th century. In 1736, the smoking of pure opium was described by Huang Shujing, involving a pipe made from bamboo rimmed with silver, stuffed with palm slices and hair, fed by a clay bowl in which a globule of molten opium was held over the flame of an oil lamp. This elaborate procedure, requiring the maintenance of pots of opium at just the right temperature for a globule to be scooped up with a needle-like skewer for smoking, formed the basis of a craft of "paste-scooping" by which servant girls could become prostitutes as the opportunity arose. [47] Chinese diaspora in the West [ edit ] Despite drastic penalties and continued prohibition of opium until 1860, opium smuggling rose steadily from 200 chests per year under the Yongzheng Emperor to 1,000 under the Qianlong Emperor, 4,000 under the Jiaqing Emperor, and 30,000 under the Daoguang Emperor. [61] The illegal sale of opium became one of the world's most valuable single commodity trades and has been called "the most long continued and systematic international crime of modern times". [62] Opium smuggling provided 15 to 20 percent of the British Empire's revenue and simultaneously caused scarcity of silver in China. [63]

Smoking of opium came on the heels of tobacco smoking and may have been encouraged by a brief ban on the smoking of tobacco by the Ming emperor. The prohibition ended in 1644 with the coming of the Qing dynasty, which encouraged smokers to mix in increasing amounts of opium. [1] In 1705, Wang Shizhen wrote, "nowadays, from nobility and gentlemen down to slaves and women, all are addicted to tobacco." Tobacco in that time was frequently mixed with other herbs (this continues with clove cigarettes to the modern day), and opium was one component in the mixture. Tobacco mixed with opium was called madak (or madat) and became popular throughout China and its seafaring trade partners (such as Taiwan, Java, and the Philippines) in the 17th century. [47] In 1712, Engelbert Kaempfer described addiction to madak: "No commodity throughout the Indies is retailed with greater profit by the Batavians than opium, which [its] users cannot do without, nor can they come by it except it be brought by the ships of the Batavians from Bengal and Coromandel." [20] The Chinese Diaspora in the West (1800s to 1949) first began to flourish during the 19th century due to famine and political upheaval, as well as rumors of wealth to be had outside of Southeast Asia. Chinese emigrants to cities such as San Francisco, London, and New York City brought with them the Chinese manner of opium smoking, and the social traditions of the opium den. [50] [51] The Indian Diaspora distributed opium-eaters in the same way, and both social groups survived as " lascars" (seamen) and " coolies" (manual laborers). French sailors provided another major group of opium smokers, having gotten the habit while in French Indochina, where the drug was promoted and monopolized by the colonial government as a source of revenue. [52] [53] Among white Europeans, opium was more frequently consumed as laudanum or in patent medicines. Britain's All-India Opium Act of 1878 formalized ethnic restrictions on the use of opium, limiting recreational opium sales to registered Indian opium-eaters and Chinese opium-smokers only and prohibiting its sale to workers from Burma. [54] Likewise, in San Francisco, Chinese immigrants were permitted to smoke opium, so long as they refrained from doing so in the presence of whites. [50] Sawynok J (January 1986). "The therapeutic use of heroin: a review of the pharmacological literature". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 64 (1): 1–6. doi: 10.1139/y86-001. PMID 2420426. Huxtable RJ, Schwarz SK: The isolation of morphine--first principles in science and ethics. Mol Interv. 2001 Oct;1(4):189-91. [ Article]The process continued until 1817, when Sertürner published his results after thirteen years of research and a nearly disastrous trial on himself and three boys. [102] The great advantage of purified morphine was that a patient could be treated with a known dose—whereas with raw plant material, as Gabriel Fallopius once lamented, "if soporifics are weak they do not help; if they are strong they are exceedingly dangerous." Michot, Yahya. L’opium et le café. Traduction d’un texte arabe anonyme et exploration de l'opiophagie ottomane (Beirut: Albouraq, 2008) ISBN 978-2-84161-397-7 Opium is most commonly smoked but can also be eaten raw, made into a pill or made into a tincture for drinking. Law a b c d e f g Dikotter, Frank (2004). Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China. Hurst. p.3. ISBN 978-0226149059.

Pseudo-Apuleius: Papaver". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007 . Retrieved June 15, 2007. Opium was prohibited in many countries during the early 20th century, leading to the modern pattern of opium production as a precursor for illegal recreational drugs or tightly regulated, highly taxed, legal prescription drugs. In 1980, 2,000 tons of opium supplied all legal and illegal uses. [20] Worldwide production in 2006 was 6610 tonnes [107]—about one-fifth the level of production in 1906; since then, opium production has fallen. [ citation needed] The use of diethyl ether and chloroform for general anesthesia began in 1846–1847, and rapidly displaced the use of opiates and tropane alkaloids from Solanaceae due to their relative safety. [103]Opium produces its effects by activating specific G protein-coupled receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. There are three major classes of opioid receptors being δ-opioid, κ-opioid and μ-opioid. Opium will generate an agonist activity which will later open the potassium channels and prevent the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. This activity causes a reduction in neuronal excitability and inhibits the release of pain neurotransmitters. 9 William Muir (1875), The opium revenue: Sir William Muir's minute and other extracts from papers published by the Calcutta government; also extracts from parliamentary papers (1sted.), London: The Anglo-Oriental Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade, p.30, Wikidata Q19095804 Robinson SL, Rowbotham DJ, Smith G (July 1991). "Morphine compared with diamorphine. A comparison of dose requirements and side-effects after hip surgery". Anaesthesia. 46 (7): 538–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.1991.tb09650.x. PMID 1862890. S2CID 35289009.

Trafkowski, J; Madea, B; Musshoff, F (August 2006). "The significance of putative urinary markers of illicit heroin use after consumption of poppy seed products". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 28 (4): 552–8. doi: 10.1097/00007691-200608000-00011. PMID 16885724. S2CID 22585610. Between 400 and 1200 CE, Arab traders introduced opium to China, and to India by 700. [19] [1] [12] [20] The physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi of Persian origin ("Rhazes", 845–930 CE) maintained a laboratory and school in Baghdad, and was a student and critic of Galen; he made use of opium in anesthesia and recommended its use for the treatment of melancholy in Fi ma-la-yahdara al-tabib, "In the Absence of a Physician", a home medical manual directed toward ordinary citizens for self-treatment if a doctor was not available. [21] [22] Latimer, Dean, and Jeff Goldberg with an Introduction by William Burroughs. Flowers in the Blood: The Story of Opium. New York: Franklin Watts, 1981S. Mercadante (1998). "Oral morphine consumption in Italy and Sicily". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 15 (4): 227–30. doi: 10.1016/S0885-3924(98)00368-6. PMID 9601157. Meadway C, George S, Braithwaite R (August 31, 1998). "Opiate concentrations following the ingestion of poppy seed products—evidence for 'the poppy seed defence' ". Forensic Science International. 96 (1): 29–38. doi: 10.1016/S0379-0738(98)00107-8. PMID 9800363. Before the 1920s, regulation in Britain was controlled by pharmacists. Pharmacists who were found to have prescribed opium for illegitimate uses and anyone found to have sold opium without proper qualifications would be prosecuted. [94] With the passing of the Rolleston Act in Britain in 1926, doctors were allowed to prescribe opiates such as morphine and heroin if they believed their patients demonstrated a medical need. Because addiction was viewed as a medical problem rather than an indulgence, doctors were permitted to allow patients to wean themselves off opiates rather than cutting off any opiate use altogether. [95] The passing of the Rolleston Act put the control of opium use in the hands of medical doctors instead of pharmacists. Later in the 20th century, addiction to opiates, especially heroin in young people, continued to rise and so the sale and prescription of opiates was limited to doctors in treatment centers. If these doctors were found to be prescribing opiates without just cause, then they could lose their license to practice or prescribe drugs. [95] Hai guan zong shui wu si shu (1889). The poppy in China. Shanghai; Statistical Dept. of the Inspectorate General of Customs.

Opiates like opium, morphine and codeine are depressant (sedative) drugs. They slow down body functions like heart rate and breathing. They also reduce pain and have been used to synthesise a very wide range of painkilling drugs. Unfortunately, opiate drugs have the potential to be addictive. Globally, opium has gradually been superseded by a variety of purified, semi-synthetic, and synthetic opioids with progressively stronger effects, and by other general anesthetics. This process began in 1804, when Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner first isolated morphine from the opium poppy. [100] [101] Modern vial of morphine first isolated from opium by Friedrich Sertürner a b Rewriting history, A response to the 2008 World Drug Report, Transnational Institute, June 2008Chen Yung-Fa (1995). "The Blooming Poppy under the Red Sun: The Yan'an Way and the Opium Trade". In Tony Saich; Hans J. Van de Ven (eds.). New Perspectives on the Chinese Communist Revolution. M.E. Sharpe. pp.263–298. ISBN 978-1-56324-428-5. In Eastern culture, opium is more commonly used in the form of paregoric to treat diarrhea. This is a weaker solution than laudanum, an alcoholic tincture which was prevalently used as a pain medication and sleeping aid. Tincture of opium has been prescribed for, among other things, severe diarrhea. [148] Taken thirty minutes prior to meals, it significantly slows intestinal motility, giving the intestines greater time to absorb fluid in the stool. Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy (2009). Opium: Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy. Harvard University Press. pp.9–. ISBN 978-0-674-05134-8. The Persian physician Abū ‘Alī al-Husayn ibn Sina ("Avicenna") described opium as the most powerful of the stupefacients, in comparison to mandrake and other highly effective herbs, in The Canon of Medicine. The text lists medicinal effects of opium, such as analgesia, hypnosis, antitussive effects, gastrointestinal effects, cognitive effects, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbances, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to opium's potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. [24] This classic text was translated into Latin in 1175 and later into many other languages and remained authoritative until the 19th century. [25] Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu used opium in the 14th-century Ottoman Empire to treat migraine headaches, sciatica, and other painful ailments. [26] Reintroduction to Western medicine [ edit ] Latin translation of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, 1483 a b c d e f g h i j Paul L. Schiff Jr. (2002). "Opium and its alkaloids". American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007 . Retrieved May 8, 2007.

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